Κυριακή, 18 Σεπτεμβρίου 2011

SPAIN


MADRID
MADRID IS THE CAPITAL AND THE LARGEST CITY OF SPAIN. IT IS LOCATED ON THE MANZANARES RIVER AND IN THE CENTER OF THE CASTILIAN PLAIN.
CHRISTIANS AND ARABS CONQUERED THE CITY BEFORE THE BEGINNING OF THE 19TH CENTURY THAT JOSEPH BONAPARTE UNDERTOOK SPAIN. AT THE 2ND OF MAY OF 1808 THE PEOPLE REBELLED AGAINST THE FRENCH TROOPS ONLY TO BRING THE ENTHRONEMENT OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS, SUCH AS QUEEN ISABELLA AND FERDINAND II OF ARAGON.
WHILE MADRID IS A MODERN COSMOPOLITAN CITY, IT HAS PRESERVED MANY OF ITS HISTORIC NEIGHBORHOODS AND MONUMENTS. IT IS A BEAUTIFUL CITY WITH MANY INTERESTING SITES.
ENJOY

PALACIO REAL IS A BIG PALACE IN PLAZA DE ORIENTE WITH BEAUTIFUL GARDENS SUCH AS “CAMPO DEL MORRO” AND “ JARDINES DE SABATINI”.  DO NOT MISS THE MAIN COURTYARD AND THE FOUR FACADES OF THE PALACE.

NEAR PALACIO REAL IS TEATRO REAL, THE OPERA HOUSE.

PLAZA MAYOR IS THE MAIN SQUARE OF THE OLD CITY, SURROUNDED BY MANY BEAUTIFUL BUILDINGS OF OLD STYLE ARCHITECTURE. HAVE A STROLL IN THE NARROW STREETS OF THE OLD CITY TO FEEL THE AURA OF THE PAST. VERY BEAUTIFUL!
THE AYUNTAMIENTO (THE OLD MUNICIPALITY) IS TO BE FOUND HERE. IN FRONT OF THE AYUNTAMIENTO, ON THE PAVEMENT, IS A MARKER THAT MEASURES ALL ROAD DISTANCES IN SPAIN. IT IS KNOWN AS “KILOMETRE ZERO”.

PUERTA DEL SOL IS A BIG SQUARE THAT LEADS TO A MAIN SHOPPING AREA, STREETS FULL OF SHOPS, COFFEE BARS, RESTAURANTS ETC.
ONE OF THE MAIN SHOPPING STREETS IS GRAN VIA.
FOR NIGHT LIFE GO TO THE AREAS OF PUERTA DEL SOL, GRAN VIA AND CHUECA.

PLAZA DE ESPANA CAN BE YOUR STARTING POINT IF YOU WANT TO VISIT A BIG PARK IN THE WEST OF THE CITY. THERE, IS LOCATED THE TEMPLO DE DEBOD. AN EGYPTIAN TEMPLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SPANISH CAPITAL!
YOU CAN ALSO GET THE “TELEFERICO” THAT WILL TRANSFER YOU UP THE MOUNTAIN FOR GREAT VIEWS OF THE CITY. THERE YOU WILL FIND A RESTAURANT. THE RIDE IS JUST TEN MINUTES.

PUERTA DE ALCALA IS LOCATED IN PLAZA DE LA INDEPENDENCIA. IS VERY NEAR TO RETIRO PARK AND YOU CAN COMBINE TWO SITES IF YOU ENTER THE PARK FROM PUERTA DE ALCALA SIDE AND LEAVE THE PARK FROM ALFONSO XII AVENUE’S SIDE TO VISIT PRADO. RETIRO PARK IS NOT TO BE MISSED, AS IS ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL PARKS OF MADRID, A VERY BIG PARK WITH MANY ATTRACTIONS TO ENJOY.

THE BOTANICAL GARDENS ARE ALSO IN THE SAME AREA.

PLAZA DE TOROS MONUMENTAL DE LAS VENTAS IS WHERE THE BULL FIGHTS STADIUM IS LOCATED. IF YOU WANT TO HAVE THE EXPERIENCE OF A BULL FIGHT, YOU WILL COME HERE. IS A REALLY TOUGH SIGHT!!!

MADRID IS A CITY FOR MUSEUM LOVERS: PRADO, REINA SOFIA (PICASSO’S GUERNICA IS IN REINA SOFIA MUSEUM), COSTUME MUSEUM, NATIONAL MUSEUM, CERVANTES MUSEUM AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL-ETHNOLOGICAL-SCIENCE AND NATURAL MUSEUM ARE ALL WORTH A VISIT.

TO ENJOY THE MOST EXCLUSIVE FLAMENCO SHOW OF SPAIN, GO TO CORRAL DE LA MORERIA. IS LOCATED IN AN ALLEY OF THE OLD CITY AND IS OFFERING THE MOST PROFESSIONAL TABLAO FLAMENCO. THE BEST THAT I HAVE EVER SEEN! TABLAO IS THE ORIGINAL FLAMENCO. A BIT PRICY BUT IS INCLUDING A GOURMET DINNER AS WELL.

IF YOUR STAY IN MADRID IS LONG ENOUGH YOU CAN ALSO DO SOME DAY TRIPS: 

TOLEDO, WAS THE CAPITAL OF MEDIEVAL SPAIN UNTIL 1560. ARABS, CHRISTIANS AND JEWS, ONCE LIVED TOGETHER IN HARMONY. YOU WILL SEE THE 13TH CENTURY CATHEDRAL, THE MEDIEVAL CASTLE, THE SYNAGOGUE AND THE EL GRECO MASTERPIECE.
(HIGHLY RECOMMENDED)

EL ESCORIAL MONASTERY IS A WORLD HERITAGE SITE AND YOU WILL GET TO KNOW HOW THE MONKS USED TO LIVE.

DO NOT MISS A VISIT TO A TABLAO FLAMENCO SHOW. MADRID OFFERS MANY RESTAURANTS THAT YOU CAN ENJOY THE RICH SPANISH CUISINE AND A FLAMENCO DANCE. 


BARCELONA

BARCELONA IS THE CAPITAL OF CATALONIA.
IS THE CITY WITH THE STRANGE ARCHITECTURE OF ANTONI GAUDI, WHO DIED IN 1926 BEFORE COMPLETING HIS MASTERPIECE “LA SAGRADA FAMILIA”.
IT IS ALSO A MODERN CITY OF NEW ARCHITECTURE OF THE SAME STRANGE STYLE!


LA SAGRADA FAMILIA: IS THE UNFINISHED WORK OF BARCELONA’S FAVORITE SON, ANTONI GAUDI. YOU WILL ADMIRE THIS BIG CATHEDRAL WITH THE BEAUTIFUL SPIRES, HIGH IN THE SKY.




LA PEDRERA: ANOTHER GAUDI MASTERPIECE OF THE YEARS 1905-110. IS HOSTING THE GAUDI MUSEUM AND IS VERY INTERESTING ON THE INSIDE AS WELL AS ON THE OUTSIDE!

TORRE AGBAR: IS A BIG ROUNDISH SHAPED, MODERN BUILDING, WITH BRIGHT COLORS SUCH AS BLUE AND RED!
PARC GUELL: IS THE MOST FAMOUS PARK OF BARCELONA, DECLARED A WORLD HERITAGE SITE BY UNESCO.    

PARC DE LA CIDUADELLA: HOSTS MANY MUSEUMS, PALACES AND LAKES.

PARC LABERINT: IS LABYRINTH STYLE PARK OF 1791.

HISTORIC GOTHIC CENTRE: IS A FEW BLOCKS NORTHEAST OF LAS RAMBLAS, IN THE OLD CITY, WITH MEDIEVAL BUILDINGS DATING BACK TO 14TH AND 15TH CENTURY.
LAS RAMBLAS: IS THE MOST VISITED STREET OF BARCELONA, POPULAR WITH BOTH TOURIST AND LOCALS. IS A 1.5 KILOMETER LONG TREE-LINED PEDESTRIAN STREET FULL OF STREET STAND-SHOPS AND OUTDOORS ENTERTAINMENT.

PLAZA CATALUNYA: IS A VERY BEAUTIFUL SQUARE WITH BIG FOUNTAINS. 

PLAZA CATEDRAL: YOU CAN STILL SEE PARTS OF THE ANCIENT WALLS OF THE CITY AROUND THE AREA OF THE CATHEDRAL.

PLAZA DE SANT JAUME: THE SQUARE HAS A MARKET AND MANY IMPORTANT BUILDINGS, MOST IMPORTANT THOSE OF THE AJUNTAMIENTO (MUNICIPALITY) AND THE PALAU DE LA GENERALITAT.
EVERY SUNDAY AFTERNOON THE CATALANS ARE GATHERING HERE TO DANCE
“THE SARDANAS”, THE TRADITIONAL CATALAN DANCE.

LA BARCELONETA: IS A WIDE, SEASIDE PROMENADE WITH MANY CATALAN RESTAURANTS, AMONGST OTHERS THE FAMOUS “AGUA RESTAURANT”.

BARCELONETA BEACH IS THE NEAREST ONE TO THE TOWN.

GRACIA: IS A DISTRICT WITH MYRIAD OF SMALL NIGHT SPOTS AND OUTDOOR CAFÉS.

THE HARBOR VELL AND THE MIRADOR DE COLOM: THE BEAUTIFUL AREA OF THE HARBOR IS BEGINNING AT THE END OF THE RAMBLAS, WITH THE CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS  MONUMENT,  KNOWN AS “THE MIRADOR DE COLON”.

YOU PASS THE ALWAYS FULL OF PEOPLE “RAMBLA DE MAR”, WHICH IS A PROMENADE IN THE SEA AND YOU ARRIVE AT MAREMAGNUM. IS A SHOPPING MALL IN THE HARBOR WITH MANY RESTAURANTS AS WELL. 

PALAU DE LA MUSICA CATALANA: IS A BUILDING OF 1908 WITH MOST EXTRAORDINARY MUSIC HALLS. ATTEND A CONCERT OR TAKE A TOUR OF THE HALL.

MUSEO PICASSO: YOU CAN ADMIRE THE WORK OF THE ARTIST.

TIBIDABO: IS THE HIGHEST HILL (1778 ft) WITH EXCELLENT VIEWS OF THE CITY!
HERE IS AN AMUSEMENT PARK, THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TOWER AND THE TEMPLE “DEL SAGRAT COR”. THE CHURCH IS ACTUALLY TWO CHURCHES, ONE ON TOP OF THE OTHER, WITH A GIANT CHRIST ON THE TOP ONE! YOU CAN VISIT THE ROOF ON A LIFT OR ON FOOT FROM THE STAIRS…
TO GO THERE YOU MUST TAKE THE METRO-EXIT TIBIDABO. THEN TAKE A TRAM TO THE FUNICULAR STATION AND THEN THE FUNICULAR WILL TRANSFER YOU TO THE MOUNTAIN. IT WORTH’S THE VISIT!!!





MONTJUIC: IS OVERLOOKING THE CITY AND IS SURROUNDED BY GALLERIES, LEISURE ATTRACTIONS, PARKS, PART OF THE 1992 OLYMPIC GROUP SITES, MUSEUMS, FOUNTAINS AND THE SPANISH VILLAGE WHICH IS A PARK FEATURING THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPAIN.

GIRLS… BARCELONA IS ONE OF THE GREATEST SHOPPING DESTINATIONS WORLDWIDE!!! THE FASHION HERE IS…KIND OF DIFFERENT, UNIQUE! IF YOU LIKE SMART AND NOT VERY USUAL CLOTHS, BARCELONA IS THE
RIGHT PLACE
FOR YOU! SO BRING LOTS OF MONEY WITH YOU WHILE VISITING…
MALAGA
MALAGA IS THE CAPITAL OF COSTA DEL SOL ON THE COAST OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA. IT IS A BIG HOLIDAY RESORT AND ONE OF ANDALUCÍA’S BIG PORTS. RIGHT BEHIND THE PORT LIES THE CENTRE OF THE CITY WHICH INCLUDES THE AREAS OF DE LARIOS AND PLAZA DE LA CONSTITUTION KNOWN AS SHOPPING, NIGHTLIFE AND CULTURAL AREAS.
ALCAZABA IS THE ARABIC FORTRESS AND THE LANDMARK OF THE CITY. IN THIS MOORISH FORTIFICATION OF THE 8TH CENTURY YOU WILL SEE RUINS OF A ROMAN THEATRE AND AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM.
GIBRALFARO CASTLE WAS BUILT IN THE 14TH CENTURY AND IS CONNECTED TO ALCAZABA BY A WALL. IT IS LOCATED ON THE TOP OF THE HILL AND IT OFFERS A GOOD VIEW OF THE PORT AND OF THE CITY.

MALAGA’S CATHEDRAL WAS BUILT BETWEEN 1528 AND 1782 IN A BAROQUE AND RENAISSANCE STYLE. IT IS ALSO KNOWN WITH THE NAME “LA MANQUITA”. NEXT TO IT IS THE IGLESIA DEL SAGRADO WITH ITS UNIQUE SHAPE.    

AYUNTAMIENTO DE MALAGA IS THE CITY HALL, LOCATED NEAR THE HARBOUR GIVING A GOOD VIEW OF THE ALCAZABA AND THE GIBRALFARO AS THEY ARE ON A HILL NEXT TO IT. IT HAS A BIG GARDEN, VERY BEAUTIFUL AND PEACEFUL. THE CITY HALL AND ITS GARDENS IS THE FAVORITE PLACE OF THE LOCALS TO HOLD THEIR WEDDINGS.
MALAGA IS ALSO THE BIRTH PLACE OF PABLO PICASSO. THE PICASSO HOME MUSEUM IS A BUILDING OF 1861 DISPLAYING THE WORK OF THE FAMOUS PAINTER. IN THE BASEMENT YOU WILL SEE ROMAN AND PHOENICIAN RUINS THAT WERE FOUND DURING THE RESTORATION OF THE BUILDING.
CASA NATAL MUSEUM IS THE BIRTH PLACE OF PICASSO AND IS LOCATED IN THE PLAZA DE LA MERCED, SURROUNDED BY THE HISTORIC ATTRACTIONS OF MALAGA. THERE IS A BIG SELECTION OF HIS WORK AND INFORMATION ABOUT HIS LIFE AND FAMILY.
EL PARQUE IS FILLED WITH TROPICAL TREES AND EXOTIC FLOWERS BROUGHT FROM ABROAD. IT IS STRECHING ALONG THE “PASSEO DEL PARQUE”.
DO NOT FORGET THAT MALAGA IS ONE OF THE  FAMOUS BEACH DESTINATIONS OF ANDALUCÍA.
NERJA BEACH IS A LONG WALKWAY OVER THE ROCKS AND AN IDEAL AREA OF FISHING.
TORREMOLINOS BEACH IS A POPULAR BEACH AMONGST LOCALS AND TOURISTS, WELL EQUIPPED WITH FACILITIES.

GRANADA
THERE IS NOTHING IN LIFE AS THE PAIN OF BEING BLIND IN GRANADA!
GREEKS, ROMANS, MOORS, MUSLIMS, ARABS, ALL PASSED FROM GRANADA, EACH LEAVING THEIR FOOTPRINTS BEHIND TO THIS AMAZING CITY! IN 1492 THE CITY BECAME UNDER CATHOLIC CONTROL AND BY THE 16TH CENTURY GRANADA TOOK A MORE CHRISTIAN LOOK WITH CHURCHES AND CATHEDRALS. TODAY THE VISITOR CAN ADMIRE BOTH CHRISTIAN AND MOORISH BUILDINGS, SCATTERED ALL OVER THE CITY.
THE COMPLEX OF THE ALHAMBRA AND THE GENERALIFE IS THE MOST EMBLEMATIC MONUMENT OF GRANADA AND A WORLD HERITAGE SITE.  THE ALHAMBRA IS A PALACE-CITADEL, COMPRISING ROYAL RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS, COURTS, OFFICIAL CHAMBERS AND A MOSQUE. THE CONSTRUCTION BEGAN IN THE 13TH CENTURY BY THE FOUNDER OF THE NASRID DYNASTY, IBN AL-AHMAR. THE GENERALIFE IS THE SUMMER ROYAL RESIDENCE WITH BEAUTIFUL GARDENS. THE ALCAZABA, ALSO KNOWN AS “THE RED FORT”, DUE TO THE RED ROCK OF ITS WALLS, IS THE OLDEST PART OF THE ALHAMBRA.

THE SACROMONTE NEIGHBOURHOOD IS THE GYPSIES AREA AND THE ORIGINAL BIRTHPLACE OF FLAMENCO. THE CAVE HOUSES IS THE TYPICAL WAY OF HOUSING IN THIS AREA WITH MYSTERY AND MAGIC IN THE AIR.  HERE ARE LOCATED THE ABBEY AND SAN CECILIO, WHICH IS THE FIRST BISHOP OF THE CITY. DO NOT MISS A “ZAMBRA” FLAMENCO SHOW IN ONE OF THE MANY CAVES OF SACRAMENTO. ZAMBRA IS A FLAMENCO DANCE WITH ORIGINS OF THE 16TH CENTURY

THE ALBAICIN IS THE OLD MOORISH NEIGHBOURHOOD WITH LABYRINTH NARROW STREETS AND THE TYPICAL “CARMENES” (TRADITIONAL STYLE HOUSES). ALL OF THEM HAVE A GARDEN FULL OF COLOUR AND PERFUME. SOME OF THEM ARE NOW TOP CLASS RESTAURANTS. WALK UP TO SAN NICHOLAS MIRADOR (VIEWPOINT) FOR A SPLENDID VIEW OF THE ALHAMBRA AND THE CITY. SUNSET IS THE BEST TIME TO GO TO SAN NICHOLAS MIRADOR BECAUSE OF THE BEAUTIFUL SUNSETS THAT IT OFFERS AS THE SUN GOES DOWN BEHIND THE ALHAMBRA!

PASEO DE LOS TRISTE AT THE FOOT OF THE ALHAMBRA, BESIDES DARRO RIVER, IS A BEAUTIFUL WALKWAY WITH MANY CAFES AND RESTAURANTS WHERE YOU CAN ENJOY A BEAUTIFUL WALK AND A MAGNIFICENT SUNSET BY THE ALHAMBRA WALLS.
BIB-RAMBLA SQUARE IS THE CENTRE OF GRANADA WITH RESTAURANTS AND CAFES. IT USED TO BE THE PLACE FOR BULLFIGHTS AND ALL KIND OF PUBLIC EVENTS LIKE TRADING, FAIRS AND EXECUTIONS.
HUERTA DE SAN VICENTE IS THE SUMMER HOUSE OF THE FAMOUS POET FEDERICO GARCIA LORCA, WHERE HE WROTE MANY OF HIS FAMOUS WORKS. IT IS LOCATED IN A BIG PARK, THE PARK OF GARCIA LORCA, NEAR THE CITY’S CENTRE. THE HOUSE IS NOW A MUSEUM, EXHIBITING THE ORIGINAL FURNITURE AND PERSONAL ITEMS OF THE POET.
GRANADA HAS ONE OF THE BEST CLIMATES OF EUROPE! DUE TO THE SIERRA NEVADA, SUMMERS ARE MILDER THAT IN OTHER PLACES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AND COOLER! SO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS AND HAVE A GREAT TIME WHILE VISITING!
SEVILLE
TARTESSIANS, ROMANS AND BARBARIANS WHERE THE CONQUERORS OF SEVILLE BEFORE THE LONG OCCUPATION OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA FROM THE MOORISH. LA GIRALDA, THE TOWER OF THE CITY’S CATHEDRAL, IS THE MOST WELL-KNOWN ISLAMIC MONUMENT OF SEVILLE. THE CITY IS LOCATED ON THE PLAIN OF THE GUADALQUIVIR RIVER AND IT PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN COMMERCE BETWEEN SPAIN AND THE AMERICAS. TODAY, IT IS STILL AN IMPORTANT RIVER PORT IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA.
THE CATHEDRAL AND THE GIRALDA IS THE MAIN ATTRACTION OF THE CITY. THIS GOTHIC CATHEDRAL OCCUPIES A HUGE AREA AND JUST OUTSIDE ONE OF ITS SIDES IS THE PATIO DE LOS NARANJOS, A LANE OF ORANGE TREES THAT DATES BACK TO MOORISH TIMES. THE TOMB OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IS TO BE FOUND INSIDE THE CATHEDRAL. THE GIRALDA, THE CATHEDRAL’S BELL, IS ONE OF THE MOST MAGNIFICENT BUILDINGS IN SEVILLE AND IT DOMINATES THE SKYLINE. CLIMBING TO THE TOP OF THE GIRALDA IS WELL WORTH THE EFFORT FOR THE REMARKABLE VIEW!
THE ALCAZAR GIVES THE IMPRESSION THAT IS A MOORISH PALACE BUT IT IS OF A MUDEJAR ARCHITECTURE. IT WAS BUILT BY MOORISH WORKMEN, BROUGHT FROM GRANADA, BY KING PEDRO THE CRUEL OF CASTILE, IN THE 1360’s. IT IS A MUST VISIT TO ENJOY THIS SPLENDID ROYAL PALACE WITH ITS BEAUTIFUL GARDENS.
BARRIO SANTA CRUZ IS THE MOST PICTURESQUE PART OF THE CITY WITH NARROW STREETS AND WHITEWASHED HOUSES. SOME OF THE CHURCHES WERE ORIGINALLY SYNAGOGUES AS IT WAS THE FORMER JEWISH QUARTER, LOCALLY KNOWN AS “THE JUDERIA”. “CALLEJON DEL AGUA”, WATER ALLEY, IS A NARROW, SHADED LANE WHICH FOLLOWS THE ALCAZAR GARDEN WALLS. AT THE END OF IT IS PLAZA ALFARO, THE INSPIRATION BALCONY SCENE IN ROMEO AND JULIET. NEXT TO THIS IS PLAZA SANTA CRUZ WITH A 17TH CENTURY CROSS IN ITS CENTRE. THE CROSS COMMEMORATES THE CHURCH DESTROYED BY THE FRENCH IN 1810.

PLAZA DE ESPANA IS ONE OF EUROPE’S PRETTIEST SQUARES-IF NOT THE PRETTIEST ONE! IT IS AN IMPRESSIVE, VAST, SEMICIRCULAR COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS WITH STAIRCASES, A BIG LAKE AND MANY FOUNTAINS. THE ADJOINING MARIA LUISA PARK IS A BEAUTIFUL AREA OF GREENERY IN THE CITY.
PASEO DE CRISTOBAL COLON IS A LONG WALKWAY BY THE RIVER FREQUENTED BY THE LOCALS AS AN AREA OF JOGGING OR JUST WALKING ENJOYING THE RIVER AND THE ROW OF THE TYPICAL ANDALUSIA HOUSES WITH THEIR IRON BALCONIES IN THE OPPOSITE SIDE.
TORRE DEL ORRO IS A DODECAGONAL MILITARY WATCHTOWER OF THE 13TH CENTURY, CONSTRUCTED TO CONTROL THE ACCESS TO SEVILLE VIA GUADALQUIVIR RIVER. DURING THE MIDDLE AGES IT ALSO SERVED AS A PRISON AND AS A STORE FOR THE PRECIOUS METALS BROUGHT FROM THE INDIES. IT IS PROBABLY THE REASON THAT TOOK ITS NAME (THE GOLD TOWER). IT IS LOCATED IN A BEAUTIFUL AREA FOR WALKING AND RELAXING BY THE RIVER.
DURING THE SUMMERS MONTHS SEVILLE IS VERY HOT! IS ONE OF THE HOTTEST CITIES IN EUROPE! SO TAKE CARE OF THE SUN IF YOUR VISIT IS IN THE SUMMER TIME.

ENJOY YOUR VISIT TO SPAIN
IT IS A VERY BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY OF EUROPE FULL OF CULTURE AND LIVELY PEOPLE


ALL THE PHOTOS TAKEN BY DESPINA ARE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT. PICTURES CAN ONLY BE USED WITH PRIOR CONSENT OF DESPINA AND THEY HAVE TO BE LINKED BACK TO THIS BLOG. IT IS FORBIDDEN TO USE THE PICTURES FOR COMMERCIAL REASONS.
PHOTOGRAPHY BY DESPINA.










Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου